Sophos UTM infront of Unifi USG

I have been running a Full Unifi setup at home for some time. This comprised of a Unifi USG --> Unifi Switch --> Unifi WAPs. As much as I like the Unifi setup I felt like it was let down by its Intrusion Detection and Prevention capabilities. I trialled pfsense and Sophos UTM as a WAN facing Firewall both free options. I finally settling on the Sophos UTM. The final configuration looks like this WAN  Sophos UTM  Unifi USG  Unifi Switch  Unifi WAPs etc. Simple enough however with this setup my LAN is double NAT’d, something I didn’t want. The instructions below shows how I over came the issue that allowed my Unifi gear to continue to work as intended, Subnets, VLANs, firewall etc, however the disabling the NAT on the USG. The Sophos UTM can see all the devices on my LAN, I can fine tune firewall rules and also make the most of more powerful security features.

Unifi USG Lets Start with the Unifi USG. The Web controller doesn’t allow us to disable NAT, however it can be done through the SLI or by using a json file.

  1. The below needs to be added to the json file. The file needs to be called config.gateway.json and it needs to be saved to the Controllers folder Ubiquiti UniFi\data\sites*sitename*

    { "service": { "nat": { "rule": { "5999": { "exclude": "''", "outbound-interface": "eth2", "type": "masquerade", “source": { "address": "" } }
    } } } }

  2. For my setup I decided to configure WAN2 on the USG to connect to the UTM. The reason for this is because if anything happens in the future I can re-enable WAN1 which would bypass the Sophos UTM. I needed to create another subnet between the USG and the UTM. For this I used The USG WAN2 port has the IP The Sophos UTM LAN port has the IP

WAN2 Firewall Rule. We need to create a firewall rule so that the WAN IN on the USG accepts the traffic from the USG.

For this I created a Rule ‘after predefined rules’ 
Type – WAN IN
Action – Accept
IPv4 Protocol – All
Source – IP address –  (The UTM LAN Port)
Destination – Address/Port Group – ALL Internal SUBNETs (Create a group with all your subnets in)

The Rest of the Configuration is done on the Sophos UTM.

Sophos UTM

I wont explain how to install the UTM in this guide. This presumes you have it installed and running already.

  1. Let's create the Interfaces.

Interfaces & Routing > Interfaces

Create a new Interface for our LAN port (connects to USG WAN)

Name - Interface-LAN
Type - Ethernet
Hardware - **what ever LAN card you are using**
IPv4 address -
IPv4 Netmask - (/30)

Create a second Interface

Name - Interface-WAN
Type - PPPOE (this is for my type of internet connection)
Hardware - **what ever LAN card you are using**
IPv4 Default Gateway - YES

Next a Static Route needs to be create to point all the LAN Subnets back to the USG.

Interfaces & Routing > Static Routes

Create a new Static Route

Route Type - Gateway Route
Network - Create a new Group which includes all your LAN Subnets
Gateway - USG WAN Port (

We need to allow the LAN Subnets to use the UTM as a DNS resolver.

Network Services > DNS

Allowed Netowrk - Add the Group which contains all the LAN Subnets.

Next we need to create some basic firewall rules, these can be fine tuned at a later date. This rule will turn off all the rules only used for troubleshooting/testing.

Network Protection > Firewall

New Rule
Position - Top
Sources - Any
Services - Any
Destination - Any
Action - Allow
Comment - Firewall OFF

Next we need to create the NAT rules. Firstly create a Masquerading Rule

Network - Any ** or all LAN Subnets**
Interface - Interface-WAN

This should give a basic working setup. Plug all the cables in, Sophos UTM WAN to moden, Sophos UTM LAN to USG WAN2, USG LAN to Switches etc.

To get te USG config to work i needed to do a Force Provision. The first time I did this all LAN devices werent able to connect to the internet. A reboot of the USG fixed this.

Sonos, Unifi, VLAN and Firewalls.

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Carrying on from a previous post - Unifi & Sonos VLANs. If you are like me and you have your Sonos Devices segregated on an IoT VLAN and the Sonos Controllers (iPhone etc) on a different VLAN then you will probably need to do some firewalling.

A little Background

VLANs are used for many reasons, segregating networks, preventing multicast packets traversing networks, security amongst other reasons. In this case I wanted all my IoT devices on its own network (VLAN) as there are many security risks with IoT devices and the a separate VLAN for my main LAN. With this I wanted to block all communication from IoT_VLAN to Main_VLAN, however I wanted my Main_VLAN to still be able to communicate with some devices on the IoT_VLAN i.e. Sonos Speakers.

So following on from the previous post where we setup the VLANs and IGMP-Proxying, we will now look at the Unifi Firewalls.

Firewalls work on rules and the rules work in descending order, i.e. if data hits the firewall it will check the rules from the top downwards until it finds a matching rule.


In Unifi there are various Rule headings, WAN, LAN and Guest and each has a IN, OUT and LOCAL. For this guide we will be working with LAN IN - the data is coming from the LAN INTO the USG.

Lets create some rules, these will be in order Top to Bottom.

The first rule is created because when the Controller on Main_VLAN creates a connection with the Speaker on IoT_VLAN we want the speaker to be able to talk back to the controller, hence we create a rule to allow established connections but do not allow it to open new connections.

Name - Allow Established
Enabled - On
Rule Applied - Before pre-defined rules
Action - Accept
IPv4 Protocol - All
States - Established and Related
Source - Address group - Any
Destination - Address group - Any

Next Rule is to allow Sonos Speakers to contact Main_VLAN

Name - SONOS_To_Main_VLAN
Enabled - On
Rule Applied - Before predefined rules
Action - Accept
IPv4 Protocol - All
Address Group - Create a group with all the Sonos Speaker IP addresses
Destination - Network - Main_VLAN

Final rule is to block all other data from IoT_VLAN to Main_VLAN

Name - Block IoT_VLAN to Main_VLAN
Enabled - On
Rule Applied - Before predefined rules
Action - Drop
IPv4 protocol - All
Source - Network - IoT_VLAN
Destination - Network - Main_VLAN

And that's it. With these rules devices on IoT_VLAN shouldnt be able to contact devices on Main_VLAN, however Main_VLAN can still contact the Sonos Speakers.

This is what the Rule Page looks like

firewall rule

Unifi Firewall Logging with syslog

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How to Enable syslogging of Unifi Firewall.

It's fairly easy to enable syslog in Unifi Controller, however to log blocked or dropped traffic at the firewall needs a few extra steps. By default anything blocked by the firewall isnt logged.

Unifi config.json.

The Unifi USG comes with pre-defined firewall rules. We need to edit these rules which can be done on the USG using command line and then also needs a json file to persist after a reboot or re-provision. We also need to create some new rules and enable syslog server.

First we need to find a syslog server. For this example I will use kiwi syslog which is free.

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Download here

Install to an easy to find location and run the console, we will come back to configure it later.

Login to your Unifi controller and go to settings and enable remote logging and enter the IP of where the kiwi syslog server is and normally the default port is 514.

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Now go to Routing and Firewall and select firewall.

We need to create 2 new rules, both identical, 1 in WAN_LOCAL and the other in WAN_IN

New Rule

Name - LAST - default drop and log
Enabled - ON
After pre-defined rules
Advanced - Enable Logging
Tick New, Established, Relate, Invalid
Dont match on ipsec
Leave rest default

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So we should have something like this

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Next we need to change the pre-defined firewall rules on the USG.

SSH onto your USG and login

set firewall name WAN_LOCAL rule 3002 log enable
set firewall name WAN_IN rule 3002 log enable

Next we need to configure Kiwi to capture the logs.

More to come soon

The next part is optional. The syslog logs in kiwi contain alot of information but this doesnt really mean much to us. I recommend using something like sumologic to collect parse and visualize the data.

Below is a screenshot of my dashboard. It displays the number of blocked connections by their geo-location. A list of top 10 blocked IPs, the total number of blocked requests over 24 hours and finally a graph of the number of blocked connections in 30 min increments. These numbers come from the firewall rule [WAN_LOCAL-4000-D].

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Head over to the next Guide "Syslog to SumoLogic" to setup the visualization of the logs.

Unifi Sonos and VLANs

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For the security consious out there you may have split your home network up into VLANs. If you've found this page by searching then you probably already know what a VLAN is and its purpose.

At home I have split my network into 4 VLANs.

VLAN1 - Main data VLAN for all my devices VLAN40 - VLAN for guests to use VLAN60 - Security VLAN, CCTV, alarms etc VLAN80 - IOT devices, internet of things, zwave, zigbee, sonos and home automation etc.

The idea of keeping IOT devices on a seperate VLAN to other devices is mainly for security. Most IOT devices are easily hackable and if this does happen they will only be able to access devices on VLAN80 and not my other devices.

Anyway this post will explain how to get the Sonos devices on VLAN80 to communicate with the controllers (iPhone, iPad, PC) on VLAN1.

With Unifi we need to enable igmp-proxy. To set it we need to SSH onto the USG.

and enter the following commands

edit protocols igmp-proxy
set interface eth1.80 role downstream
set interface eth1.80 threshold 1
set interface eth1.80 alt-subnet
set interface eth1 role upstream
set interface eth1 threshold 1
set interface eth1 alt-subnet

eth1.80 = the VLAN of the sonos devices (IOT) eth1 = VLAN1 the main data VLAN with the Sonos controllers on.

I recommend restarting the igmp-proxy service on the USG. To do so enter the command

restart igmp-proxy

Now it is set, you will have to re-configure the Sonos Device with the controller.

With Unifi, the CLI commands arent persistent with a re-provision. To make the changes stick we need to use a config.gateway.json file

Its location is

C:\users\%username%\Ubiquiti Unifi\data\sites\default\

Edit the config.gateway.json file and enter the below

"protocols": {
        "igmp-proxy": {
            "interface": {
                "eth1": {
                    "role": "upstream",
                    "threshold": "1",
                    "alt-subnet": ""
                "eth1.80": {
                    "role": "downstream",
                    "threshold": "1",
                    "alt-subnet": ""

Obviously changing the VLAN numbers to what ever yours are.

Troubleshooting Ok well this didnt really work straight away for me.

To check that igmp is working you can issue the following commands

show ip multicast mfc


show ip multicast interfaces 

This should show any multicast data its source and where it is going. For example

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On the top half you can see see the source and that some data is going from eth1 to eth1.80. However with the command Show IP multicast interfaces you can see that no multicast data is coming into eth1.80 interface, it seems to be going out on eth1 and into eth1.60. To resolve this I had to issue the restart igmp-proxy command to restart the service. A USG re-provision didnt work.

For creating Firewalls, see this post - Sonos, Unifi, Firewalls & VLANS

Unifi Portal - Responsive Design

enter image description here By Default the Unifi Guest/Hotspot portal is a fixed webpage. Todays standards call for a responsive webpage design and with a little tweaking we can achieve it.

First we need to browse to the location of our Unifi Controller.

for Windows OS, normally located

C:\Users\Swynol\Ubiquiti UniFi

Head deeper into the folder at the path below

C:\Users\Swynol\Ubiquiti UniFi\data\sites\default\app-unifi-hotspot-portal

we now need to add a new css file

Open notepad or notepad++ and paste the following contents

    html {
  background: url(/guest/s/default/portalfile/58b4ac1420c21de2551c3c24?portalfile=true) no-repeat center center fixed;
  -webkit-background-size: cover;
  -moz-background-size: cover;
  -o-background-size: cover;
  background-size: cover;

Save it and call the document 'background.css' save it to the CSS folder in the above location.

We now need to edit the index.html file (right click open with notepad)

We need to add the line below to the header section of the file

<link href="css/background.css" rel="stylesheet"> 

it should now look like this

    <!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en" ng-controller="MainController as mainCtrl">
    <meta charset="utf-8">
    <title unifi-portal-custom-title></title>
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1">
    <link rel="apple-touch-icon-precomposed" href="images/favicons/favicon-152.png">
    <meta name="msapplication-TileColor" content="#0193d7">
    <meta name="msapplication-TileImage" content="images/favicons/favicon-144.png">
    <link rel="apple-touch-icon-precomposed" sizes="152x152" href="images/favicons/favicon-152.png">
    <link rel="apple-touch-icon-precomposed" sizes="144x144" href="images/favicons/favicon-144.png">
    <link rel="apple-touch-icon-precomposed" sizes="120x120" href="images/favicons/favicon-120.png">
    <link rel="apple-touch-icon-precomposed" sizes="72x72" href="images/favicons/favicon-72.png">
    <link rel="apple-touch-icon-precomposed" href="images/favicons/favicon-57.png">
    <link rel="icon" href="images/favicons/favicon-32.png" sizes="32x32">
    <link href="fonts/1.3.2/lato/style.css" rel="stylesheet">
    <link href="fonts/1.3.2/ubnt-icon/style.css" rel="stylesheet">
    <link href="css/app.css?v=1.3.2" rel="stylesheet">
    <link href="css/background.css" rel="stylesheet"> 
    <script src="config/config.js?v=1.3.2"></script>
    <script src="js/vendor.js?v=1.3.2"></script>
    <script src="js/components.js?v=1.3.2"></script>
    <script src="js/main.js?v=1.3.2"></script>

Save it.

And that's it. all done

Unifi Controller SSL (HTTPS)


If like me you are running a Unifi system at home then you will probably want to connect to the controller via HTTPS. This also applies to the Guest Portal, providing them with a Trusted Certificate and not a self signed one.

This guide is for machines running Windows, but has some similarities for other OS.


  • Unifi Controller installed and running either by a service or the app
  • A Trusted Certificate and private.key If you havent already done so, check out my post on how to get a certificate for free Easy Let's Encrypt Certificate

Also you can find out how to install and configure a Unifi Controller here. (Coming Soon!)

Step 1 - Key Store Explorer

Head over to Keystore Explorer and download the program and install it. This is used to import our certificates to the keystore unifi uses.

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Step 2 - Creating a PKCS #12

If you are familiar with creating a PKCS #12 certificate then please create one with your unifi controllers domain name and the guest portals domain name with the password of aircontrolenterprise.

If you arent familiar with creating a PKCS #12 file, see below.

Step 3 - Importing the Certificates

Find the location of the Unifi Controller directory. On Windows the default directory is

C:\Users\%USER NAME%\Ubiquiti UniFi

In the folder 'data' there is a file called keystore. Open the keystore file with key store explorer.

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The password is aircontrolenterprise

You should now see the below

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Select the unifi key in keystore explorer then click on 'tools' and import key pair and choose 'PKCS #12'.

Decryption password is aircontrolenterprise

Enter the alias 'unifi' in lower case

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If it asks to overwrite click 'YES'

Save the Keystore file.

Finally restart your unifi controller and it should now have a working certificate!